This should be a place for constructive conversation. Also in the cause of clarity: I did not say that the Sagan quote is a defense of theism.
Introduction In Gene Roddenberry's vision of the future there is no place for racial stereotypes as they were still commonplace in the s, or for traditional gender roles.
We need to bear in mind that the original Star Trek had three Caucasian men in the key roles, and that it was made under the surveillance of conservative network directors who reportedly wanted to get rid of the alien Spock as well as of "Number One", the woman in a commanding position.
Yet, in the following the series spoke out against the the preconceptions and prejudices of the time on many occasions. A certain degree of racism and sexism still exist in today's society, and occasionally shows up in TV programs.
But all in all, in the past few decades the question of skin color and gender on screen has become a non-issue, so that the decision to get a black commander for DS9 or a female captain on Voyager was not anywhere as bold as it would have been in the s.
Yet, there is one last field at least, one field of high social relevance in which Star Trek did Arc moral universe other essays accomplish the goal of equality for a long time.
Except for a few occasional innuendos, homosexuality was absent from the Star Trek Universe. Everyone of the characters seemed to be straight by default.
And while other mainstream TV series did include same-sex relationships in some fashion, the gay, lesbian and bisexual Star Trek fans were waiting to be acknowledged in their favorite fictional universe. Since the early days of TNG their hopes were nourished by occasional testimonies from the producers or actors who kept promising that one day there would be outspoken homosexuality in the show, as well as by rumors whenever a new character was to appear who could be gay.
Several groups are committed to promoting lesbian, gay or bisexual appearances on Star Trek. Motivation The motivation to get homosexuality into canon Star Trek should be distinguished from another phenomenon, the so-called slash fiction. While the idea to work towards sexual diversity is generally the same, the slash authors take it one step further and often too far.
They have written erotic slash stories about virtually every combination of regular characters of equal sex.
Getting gay or lesbian characters onto the screen is about adjusting the statistics and doing justice to a group of fans who have been ignored so far. Slash fiction which is often not even written by fans who are homosexual themselveson the other hand, is not political but chiefly a matter of taste.
Perhaps more than usual fan fiction that is well within the bounds of canon Trek. Ultimately the lacking acceptance of slash fiction lies in the nature of the stories that are purposely written to appeal only to a minority of fans, rather than in homophobia of those who just don't like it.
I refrain from commenting on "evidence" from the series that may justify slash fiction. There are subtle gestures that purportedly imply that a character is attracted to another one of the same sex and that may require a sensitive "gaydar" and a good deal of wishful thinking to be decipherable.
As already mentioned, fans either like to read or avoid slash fiction, and I freely admit that I'm doing the latter. The key to slash fiction seems to be romantic transfiguration anyway, so there would be no need for a perfectly rational explanation. It certainly is inconsistent that homosexuality is almost completely missing from the fictional Trek Universe.
This is the "Investigations" section at EAS where I generally try to put some things straight Sorry for the pun, I noticed it too late but found my own awkwardness amusing.
Nevertheless it is not the goal of this essay to find proof for the existence of same-sex relationships in the 24th century. Even if the statistics of canon Trek may insinuate otherwise, I reject the reasoning that homosexuality may become extinct in the Federation.
It would not be the Federation of tolerance and diversity that we all know, much less do I want to support the bigotry that gay people must be "healed" or "re-educated". I wholeheartedly support the demand of getting gay characters into the show. Yet, I have no political or personal interest; my look at Star Trek's history of dealing with homosexuality is rather unemotional and may not reflect the "official" position of the LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender movement.
I also try to keep in mind that homosexual people are not a monolithic group but a multitude of individuals most of whom probably don't want to make a big deal of being "different" but who just want to be accepted the way they are - in the real world as well as in the media.
Speaking of LGBT as an umbrella term, it includes transgender people, whose absence from the fictional world of Star Trek may be easier to explain or to justify because not all forms of transgenderism would be as visible as socially accepted homosexuality.
So rather than trying to sort out a variety of gender identity topics I will focus on homosexuality in Star Trek. There are two important reasons why homosexuality should be depicted in Star Trek in some fashion: Fictional motivation This the desire to picture a positive future in which sexual barriers don't exist any longer just like racism and sexism have been eliminated tooto an extent that has not yet been accomplished today.
In other words, whenever homosexuality is depicted on Star Trek, it should be a non-issue. It should not be anything like a gay couple on a starship who need to keep their relationship secret from a homophobic captain.
No one in Starfleet is supposed to be that reactionary.vol 6 pg 1. A Philosophy of Education Book 1. Introduction. These are anxious days for all who are engaged in education.
We rejoiced in the fortitude, valour and devotion shown by our men in the War and recognize that these things are due to the Schools as well as to the fact that England still breeds "very valiant creatures.".
The Arc of the Moral Universe and Other Essays Nov 22, by Joshua Cohen. Hardcover. $ $ 40 64 $ Only 1 left in stock - order soon.
More Buying Choices. $ (19 used & new offers) Arc of the Moral Universe Jan 24, by Kennedy Ifeh and Allart Studios and Publishing International. In literature, a moral universe is the moral nature of the universe as a whole in relation to human life, Joshua Cohen, The Arc of the Moral Universe and Other Essays, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ; George W.
King, The Moral Universe, Eaton & Mains, ;. It seems that after the idea of "Blood and Fire" had been ditched there was an internal decision to comment on the discrimination of homosexuality at least in an allegoric fashion - and if only to appease fans who have been waiting in vain for genuine homosexuality in a Star Trek episode.
Drawing on ancient creation myths and the Bible, Simone de Beauvoir shows how women are labeled as the Other by being viewed as secondary, less perfect beings in relation to men. In creation myths, like the ancient Greek story of Helios and Semele, the sun and the moon were usually personified as a male god and a female goddess, respectively, with the female figure representing darkness.
The Arc of the Moral Universe and Other Essays, Joshua Cohen (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, ), pp., $ cloth.. This volume collects eleven of Joshua Cohen’s essays, each of which deals in some way with the nature and role of political justice and its relationship to ideals of democratic self-government.