Ganges Plain[ edit ] After BCE, some Vedic tribes began migrating to the Ganges Plainpresent-day India, which was characterized by increasing settled agriculture, a hierarchy of four social classesand the emergence of monarchical, state-level polities.
Their fascination with the s has continued to this day — they describe the era as a period in modern history in which various contemporary ideologies of the left and the right fought their most decisive battles.
The s were no different in Pakistan as well.
Who, in turn, would go on to redefine global politics and society from the s onwards. The cultural and political flamboyance of the s eventually collapsed on itself. On December 9 and 17 ofPakistan held its very first elections on the basis of adult franchise.
Yahya had been handed over power by the Ayub Khan dictatorship inafter Ayub resigned due to pressure implied by a widespread students and workers movement.
During the PPP election campaign, new-found youthful, middle-class infatuations such as radical politics and revolutionary posturing connected with the street-smart vibes of the pro-Bhutto working-class milieu.
Till about the late s, urban middle-class Pakistan was either only nominally connected to this culture or many from the class had simply dismissed it as being the realm of the uneducated.
The latter group brought with it the music, the emotionalism and the devotional sense of loyalty of the shrine culture. That started to change in — and fast. They traveled down to Rawalpindi and then to Lahore from where they entered India by bus or train.
It was at the shrines of Lahore; on the beaches of Karachi; and at the bus stands of Peshawar, where young Pakistanis came into direct contact with the passing hippies. A group of friends in Karachi, These elections, though held under a military dictatorship, are still hailed by a majority of Pakistani political commentators as being the most free and fair ever held in the country.
The results were stunning. Also swept aside by the populist tide of both the PPP and the Awami League were various religious parties. A PPP candidate and his supporters celebrate victory in Hyderabad But since Mujib and his party were squarely made up of Bengali nationalists, Yahya hesitated.
Pakistanis have yet to decide upon a convincing closure on the issue. As the drastic situation in East Pakistan rapidly turned into becoming a full-fledged Civil War, scores of refugees from East Pakistan crossed into the Indian state of West Bengal, drawing India into the conflict.
The turmoil soon mutated into an all-out war in December But unlike the Pakistan-India war that had resulted in a stalemate, this time the Pakistani troops lost out.
Mujib was released from a West Pakistan jail to travel back to East Pakistan via Londonand take charge of the newly created Bangladesh and Bhutto took over the reins of what now simply became the Republic of Pakistan. Facing a revolt from a group of military officers, Yahya hands over power to Bhutto whose party had won a majority in West Pakistan in the election.
If one even skims through the economic stats of Pakistan between andthe Bhutto regime till then did a rather remarkable job, considering that he had inherited an economy ravaged by an exhaustive war.
Of course, political skirmishes between Bhutto and the opposition parties continued making the news, but by and large, Pakistanis had decided to settle down and do whatever they could do to restore their pride after the East Pakistan debacle.
For example, on the youth front, university and college students, most of whom had been in an agitation mode ever since the late s, returned to the campuses, willing and ready to conduct their politics through annual student union elections.
In fact, regarding campus politics, the Bhutto erais remembered to be one of the most stable, in which regular student union elections kept the students in a more democratic frame of mind.
More so, the political and social changes taking place in post Pakistan can clearly be gauged by observing the shifts and pulls witnessed in various universities and colleges in Pakistan during the Bhutto era. For example, even though leftists were still a force on campuses, they lost the unity that they had exhibited in the late s during the anti-Ayub Movement.
In response to the fragmentation of leftist groups, many progressive student leaders in Karachi formed the more moderate Liberal Students Organisation. This fragmentation of the left on campuses was reflective of the albeit quiet sense of ambiguity growing within urban middle-class Pakistan.Country Synthesis Report on Urban Air Quality Management Pakistan Discussion Draft, December 2 country synthesis report on urban air quality management Industrial development in Sri Lanka is still at a stage where only a handful .
Collection and synthesis of secondary information, and Interviews with Government Officials, academia and Pakistans urban legacy 20 Section 2 Introduction 21 Background 21 Noise and air pollution Saving Rawalpindi-Islamabad: Multi Hazard Risk Mapping Our Urban.
Research compilation for this country synthesis report (CSR) on Urban Air Quality Management was led by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI–Asia) Secretariat, with inputs by a range of organizations and air quality experts from across Asia and elsewhere and facilitated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) through its Regional.
In , a national workshop on air quality management was organized by CAI–Asia in Lahore, Pakistan in partnership with City of Lahore, Lahore Clean Air Commission, National Environmental Action Plan-Support Programme, IUCN Pakistan, ADB, World Bank, and other institutions in order to catalyze air quality management e?
orts in Pakistan . Urban design and urban renewal program, promulgation of building rules and planning standards Environmental Protection: Section 48 of the Sixth Schedule under the title of “Environmental Protection” outlines that a local government may take certain measures for the prevention of the pollution of air by gases, dust or other substances and.