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General aspects[ edit ] Often, sexual orientation and sexual orientation identity are not distinguished, which can impact accurately assessing sexual identity and whether or not sexual orientation is able to change; sexual orientation identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or actual sexual orientation.
Innate bisexuality Innate bisexuality is an idea introduced by Sigmund Freud. According to this theory, all humans are born bisexual in a very broad sense of the term, that of incorporating general aspects of both sexes. In Freud's view, this was true anatomically and therefore also psychologically, with sexual attraction to both sexes being one part of this psychological bisexuality.
Freud believed Sexual orientation research paper in the course of sexual development the masculine side would normally become dominant in men and the feminine side in women, but that as adults everyone still has desires derived from both the masculine and the feminine sides of their natures.
Freud did not claim that everyone is bisexual in the sense of feeling the same level of sexual attraction to both genders. To date, a lot of research has been conducted to determine the influence of genetics, hormonal action, development dynamics, social and cultural influences—which has led many to think that biology and environment factors play a complex role in forming it.
It was once thought that homosexuality was the result of faulty psychological development, resulting from childhood experiences and troubled relationships, including childhood sexual abuse. It has been found that this was based on prejudice and misinformation. Biology and sexual orientation Research has identified several biological factors which may be related to the development of sexual orientation, including genesprenatal hormonesand brain structure.
No single controlling cause has been identified, and research is continuing in this area. Current scientific investigation usually seeks to find biological explanations for the adoption of a particular sexual orientation.
A twin study from appears to exclude genes as a major factor,  while a twin study from found that homosexuality was explained by both genes and environmental factors. The authors concluded that "our findings, taken in context with previous work, suggest that genetic variation in each of these regions contributes to development of the important psychological trait of male sexual orientation.
Prenatal hormones and sexual orientation The hormonal theory of sexuality holds that just as exposure to certain hormones plays a role in fetal sex differentiationhormonal exposure also influences the sexual orientation that emerges later in the adult.
Fetal hormones may be seen as either the primary influence upon adult sexual orientation or as a co-factor interacting with genes or environmental and social conditions. The default developmental pathway for a human fetus being female, the Y chromosome is what induces the changes necessary to shift to the male developmental pathway.
This differentiation process is driven by androgen hormones, mainly testosterone and dihydrotestosterone DHT. The newly formed testicles in the fetus are responsible for the secretion of androgens, that will cooperate in driving the sexual differentiation of the developing fetus, including its brain.
This results in sexual differences between males and females. Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation Recent studies found an increased chance of homosexuality in men whose mothers previously carried to term many male children.
This effect is nullified if the man is left-handed.What are the differences between sex, gender, and gender identity? It’s common for people to confuse sex, gender, and gender identity. But they’re actually all different things. Ex-Gays?: A Longitudinal Study of Religiously Mediated Change in Sexual Orientation [Stanton L.
Jones, Mark A.
Yarhouse] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Is it possible to be an ex gay? Stanton L. Jones and Mark A.
Yarhouse present social science research on homosexuality designed to answer the questions: Can those who receive religiously-informed psychotherapy . Learn more about how we work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people through our research, resources, international work, campaigns and #stonewallsays.
Researchers use facial recognition tools to predict sexual orientation. LGBT groups aren't happy. Learn more about how we work with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people through our research, resources, international work, campaigns and #stonewallsays. The University of Memphis does not discriminate against students, employees, or applicants for admission or employment on the basis of race, color, religion, creed, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, disability, age, status as a protected veteran, genetic information, or any other legally protected class with .