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Dominant instructional activities Teacher lectures; students memorise material for tests Student-selected reading, student-selected projects, teaching writing as reflective practice hillocks learning Teacher-guided participation in both small-and large-group work; recording and analysing individual student progress; explicit assistance to reach higher levels of competence Who is responsible if student does not progress?
Often, family or social conditions are at fault. The more capable others: What Is Learned Must Be Taught An important argument in educational practice today centres on the debate of whether learning can proceed naturally and without much intervention or whether what is learned must be taught.
While we agree that creating an environment in which kids will naturally grow and learn is attractive, both Hillocks and Vygotsky would maintain that teachers who believe or enact only this vision are letting themselves off the hook.
Both argue that anything that is learned must be actively taught. We make thousands of teaching decisions a day and all the decisions we make are theoretical, based on what we value, on what we think we are doing or should be doing, and on what we think will work toward those purposes.
We want our decisions to work to support learning for all of our kids, even though some didn't do the reading, some did it and have no clue, some are five chapters ahead, and all are at widely different skill levels.
What can we do so that our teaching is effective for all of our students in ways that work and make sense to us and to the kids?
How can we teach so they can understand the purpose and use of what we do together in class, so they can all develop new abilities built on the skills they already possess, and so they can understand a higher purpose, pattern, and sense to classroom work? Powerful Teaching George Hillocks maintains that teachers should and can possess specialised knowledge of students, of particular content and tasks, and of how to represent and teach this knowledge.
In other words, when we teach, we teach something to somebody. We need to know both our subject and student. We need to know how to teach in general, and in particular situations with the particular skills called for in that situation or with that text. Shulman argues that there is a knowledge base for teaching and that it includes the following: When we know these things, then theory allows practices to stem in a wide-awake way from an articulate and unified set of principles.
These principles can then lead us to scrutinise our teaching and to up the ante on it, pushing us forward to more powerful teaching. A Theoretical Perspective When you assign a task and the students successfully complete it without help, they could already do it.
They have been taught nothing. What a child can do alone and unassisted is a task that lies in what Vygotsky calls the zone of actual development ZAD. When a teacher assigns a task and the students are able to do it, the task is within the ZAD. They have already been taught and have mastered the skills involved in that task.
I remember many times in my own teaching career when I made such an assignment and exulted at my teaching prowess when the most excellent projects were submitted.
Vygotsky wouldn't have been so sanguine. He would say that the kids could already do what I asked them to do, and I had taught them nothing. The place where instruction and learning can take place is the zone of proximal development ZPD. Learning occurs in this cognitive region, which lies just beyond what the child can do alone.
Anything that the child can learn with the assistance and support of a teacher, peers, and the instructional environment is said to lie within the ZPD.Seeking the Best in the Teaching of Writing Tom Romano Miami University, Oxford, Ohio Teaching Writing As Reflective schwenkreis.com Hillocks, Jr.
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Teaching writing as reflective practice. [George Hillocks, Jr.] -- This work begins with the assumption that writing is at the heart of education and then provides a meta-theory to respond to the question: what is involved in the effective teaching of writing at the.
In TEACHING WRITING AS REFLEXIVE PRACTICE, George Hillocks asks, "What is involved in the efficient teaching of writing?" His book is his attempt to provide a metatheory that would be useful to secondary and college teachers of schwenkreis.com: George Hillocks.
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Abstract. Advanced writing skills are an important aspect of academic performance as well as of subsequent work- related performance. However, American students rarely attain advanced scores on assessments of writing skills (National Assessment of Educational Progress, ).
Teaching Writing as Reflective Practice by George Hillocks 52 ratings, average rating, 6 reviews Teaching Writing as Reflective Practice Quotes (showing of 4) “Active critical reflection is necessary in every aspect of our teaching, not only in front of a class.