Author Archive Teams are complicated, complex structures because they are comprised of individuals with different personalities, biases, strengths, and weaknesses. Before people can form into an effective team, they must first learn to work together.
Preparations[ edit ] The initial task during the implementation of a team is the definition of the general purpose of the team together with the determination of the level of virtuality that might be appropriate to achieve these goals.
These decisions are usually determined by strategic factors such as mergers, increase of the market span, cost reductions, flexibility and reactivity to the market, etc.
Management-related activities that should take place during preparation phase includes mission statement, personnel selection, task design, rewards system design, choose appropriate technology and organizational integration.
Getting acquainted, goal clarification and development of intra-team rules should also be accomplished during this phase. Experimental studies demonstrate that getting acquainted before the start of computer-mediated work facilitates cooperation and trust.
The following discussion is again restricted to issues on which empirical results are already available. These issues are leadership, communication within virtual teams, team members' motivation, and knowledge management.
Particularly, all kinds of direct control are difficult when team managers are not at the same location as the team members.
As a consequence, delegative management principles are considered that shift parts of classic managerial functions to the team members. However, team members only accept and fulfill such managerial functions when they are motivated and identify with the team and its goals, which is again more difficult to achieve in virtual teams.
Next, empirical results on three leadership approaches are summarized that differ in the degree of autonomy of the team members: Electronic monitoring as an attempt to realize directive leadership over distance, management by objectives MBO as an example for delegative leadership principles, and self-managing teams as an example for rather autonomous teamwork.
By definition, communication in virtual teams is predominantly based on electronic media such as e-mail, telephone, video-conference, etc.
The main concern here is that electronic media reduce the richness of information exchange compared to face-to-face communication. Effective dispersed groups show spikes in presence during communication over time, while ineffective groups do not have as dramatic spikes. Since most of the variables are originated within the person, they can vary considerably among the members of a team, requiring appropriate aggregation procedures for multilevel analyses e.
However, particularly when virtual project teams have only a short life-time and reform again quickly, careful and constructive disbanding is mandatory in order to maintain high motivation and satisfaction among the employees.
Members of transient project teams anticipate the end of the teamwork in the foreseeable future, which in turn overshadows the interaction and shared outcomes.
The final stage of group development should be a gradual emotional disengagement that includes both sadness about separation and at least in successful groups joy and pride in the achievements of the team.
The other side of this same coin is that virtual teams create a more equal workplace, discouraging age, race, and disability discrimination by forcing individuals to interact with others whose differences challenge their assumptions.
Physically disadvantaged employees are also able to participate more in teams where communication is virtual, where they may not have previously been able due to physical limitations of an office or other workspace.
Cultural barriers are not removed from the team, they are instead shielded from view in situations where they are irrelevant. In fact, simply understanding the diversity within a team and working on ways around that can strengthen the relationship between team members of different cultures.
They also reduce disruption in the normal workday by not requiring an individual to physically leave their workspace. A company is able to recruit from a larger pool of employees if using virtual teams, as people are increasingly unwilling to relocate for new jobs. A growing amount of talent would otherwise be unobtainable without the employee traveling often.
The use of virtual teams also allows the employee to participate in multiple projects within the company that are located on different sites.Group cohesiveness generally improves group productivity and job satisfaction and lowers stress levels. For this reason, contemporary business management structures encourage group cohesiveness.
Group cohesiveness (also called group cohesion and social cohesion) arises when bonds link members of a social group to one another and to the group as a whole.
Although cohesion is a multi-faceted process, it can be broken down into four main components: social relations, task relations, perceived unity, and emotions. . Team cohesion is the degree to which individual members want to contribute to the group ‘s ability to continue as a functioning work unit.
Cohesiveness develops over time out of interpersonal and group-level attraction, through collaboration, and as a result of a sense of belonging. From the beginning of time, people have formed groups. Groups provide the basis for family living, protection, waging war and work. Every time youre in a meeting, whether with one other person or twenty, youre in a group.
Group behaviour has ranged from total chaos to dramatic change, but it is. Despite the ubiquity of leadership influences on organizational team performance and the large literatures on leadership and team/group dynamics, we know surprisingly little about how leaders create and handle effective teams.
The term Popularity is borrowed from the Latin term popularis, which originally meant "common."The current definition of the word popular, the "fact or condition of being well liked by the people", was first seen in While popularity is a trait often ascribed to an individual, it is an inherently social phenomenon and thus can only be understood in the context of groups of people.