Data is expressed as number within the sample who possess the characteristic. Probability determined using a Mann- Whitney U test. Why is Table 1 in most studies? Shows that demographic and prognostic variables were evenly balanced in the process of random allocation of subjects to experimental and control groups.
Writing a Research Paper Series: When editing a manuscript, the section that is typically the most problematic is the discussion. The purpose of the discussion is to review the study findings in light of the published literature and draw conclusions from the data.
While rarely is one manuscript affected by all of these errors, the following are the most common areas in need of improvement. Restating the results By far the most common error made in the discussion is restating the results.
While the main findings should be summarized in the discussion, the results including statistics and main figures should be presented only in the results section. Often, authors will present some of the figures in the results and the remaining data in the discussion. Care should be taken that the findings are summarized in the context of the published literature and not simply a reiteration of the results section.
Incorrect Length Another common issue encountered regarding the discussion is the length of this section. The length of the discussion should fit with the type of article and maximum word count permitted for the journal.
For example, the discussion of a case report will be much shorter than that of an original article which describes six figures. However, the discussion should not be an in-depth review of the literature, but rather a discussion of the findings as they relate to published studies. A good rule of thumb is to aim for approximately words.
When a discussion is too long, the reader often loses sight of the main message of the study. Therefore, to keep the reader engaged and provide a convincing argument, an attempt should be made to be as concise as possible. Citation quality Another common error is the cited literature throughout the discussion.
Citation quality is important because it is used to support the results presented in the manuscript. The authors should ensure that the citations are from the most recently published literature, and not reports from over 20 years prior.
Attention should also be paid to the journal requirements, as some journals will require that a certain percentage of the references must be published within the past 5 to 10 years.
Authors should also ensure that the references are from top tier journals to adequately support the findings of the present study. Another common error is a lack of proper citations.
This occurs when the findings obtained from outside sources are not cited at all or inconsistently referenced. It is important to note that all statements containing data from external sources should be properly referenced and specific to maximize the impact.
The study limitations are not discussed One of the most frequently neglected aspects of a discussion is the mention of the study limitations. While it is understandable that the flaws in the experimental design and data are not factors that most authors wish to highlight, this section is required by most journals and should be stated.
A recommended strategy is to discuss the limitations in such a way that provides justification for why they are acceptable. For example, if the study included only a small number of participants, you may wish to describe this limitation in the context of why so few subjects were available.
While the inclusion of few patients prohibits the extrapolation of our findings to the general population, disease X is extremely rare, and this study presents data from the largest number of subjects to date.
The conclusions do not state the study significance and implications OR overstate the significance of the findings An effective conclusion is one of the most important aspects of the entire manuscript as this is the final impression that the reader has after reading the study.Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper.
There are elements of the discussion that should be included and other things that should be avoided. Always write the discussion for the reader; remember that the focus should be to help the How to Write an Effective Discussion. A discussion paper presents and discusses in depth the issues that surround a specific topic.
When writing a discussion paper, you must include thorough discussion of both sides of the topic being debated, reliable research and evidence regarding the topic. Discussion is one of the hardest section in research paper or thesis. It needs experience, learning and practice.
It is not a way to restate your results. Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper.
There are elements of the discussion that should be included and other things that should be. Discussion is one of the hardest section in research paper or thesis.
It needs experience, learning and practice. It is not a way to restate your results. Feb 12, · The discussion section can be written in 3 parts: an introductory paragraph, intermediate paragraphs and a conclusion paragraph. For intermediate paragraphs, a “divide and conquer” approach, meaning a full paragraph describing each of the study endpoints, can be used.