The impact of different surfaces on speed and distance of a car traveling down an incline

This sounds contrary to what all physics students are taught, but the reason is while friction scales with mass, air resistance doesn't. That's why a thirty-foot rock will fall faster than a thirty-foot parachute in an atmosphere. It's also why the winning car in pine-wood or soap-box derby contests usually seem to be right at the weight limit.

The impact of different surfaces on speed and distance of a car traveling down an incline

In part this was due to an incomplete understanding of the sometimes non-obvious force of frictionand a consequently inadequate view of the nature of natural motion. Most of the previous misunderstandings about motion and force were eventually corrected by Galileo Galilei and Sir Isaac Newton.

With his mathematical insight, Sir Isaac Newton formulated laws of motion that were not improved for nearly three hundred years.

The impact of different surfaces on speed and distance of a car traveling down an incline

With modern insights into quantum mechanics and technology that can accelerate particles close to the speed of light, particle physics has devised a Standard Model to describe forces between particles smaller than atoms. The Standard Model predicts that exchanged particles called gauge bosons are the fundamental means by which forces are emitted and absorbed.

Only four main interactions are known: Aristotelian physics and Theory of impetus Aristotle famously described a force as anything that causes an object to undergo "unnatural motion" Since antiquity the concept of force has been recognized as integral to the functioning of each of the simple machines.

The mechanical advantage given by a simple machine allowed for less force to be used in exchange for that force acting over a greater distance for the same amount of work. Analysis of the characteristics of forces ultimately culminated in the work of Archimedes who was especially famous for formulating a treatment of buoyant forces inherent in fluids.

In Aristotle's view, the terrestrial sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different "natural places" therein. Aristotle believed that motionless objects on Earth, those composed mostly of the elements earth and water, to be in their natural place on the ground and that they will stay that way if left alone.

He distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their "natural place" e. The place where the archer moves the projectile was at the start of the flight, and while the projectile sailed through the air, no discernible efficient cause acts on it.

Aristotle was aware of this problem and proposed that the air displaced through the projectile's path carries the projectile to its target. This explanation demands a continuum like air for change of place in general.

The shortcomings of Aristotelian physics would not be fully corrected until the 17th century work of Galileo Galileiwho was influenced by the late medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus. Galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the Aristotelian theory of motion.

He showed that the bodies were accelerated by gravity to an extent that was independent of their mass and argued that objects retain their velocity unless acted on by a force, for example friction.

Newton's laws of motion Sir Isaac Newton described the motion of all objects using the concepts of inertia and force, and in doing so he found they obey certain conservation laws. Newton's first law Newton's First Law of Motion states that objects continue to move in a state of constant velocity unless acted upon by an external net force resultant force.

Newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate inertia that functions as the fundamental equilibrium "natural state" in place of the Aristotelian idea of the "natural state of rest".

The impact of different surfaces on speed and distance of a car traveling down an incline

That is, Newton's empirical First Law contradicts the intuitive Aristotelian belief that a net force is required to keep an object moving with constant velocity. By making rest physically indistinguishable from non-zero constant velocity, Newton's First Law directly connects inertia with the concept of relative velocities.

Specifically, in systems where objects are moving with different velocities, it is impossible to determine which object is "in motion" and which object is "at rest".

The laws of physics are the same in every inertial frame of referencethat is, in all frames related by a Galilean transformation.

For instance, while traveling in a moving vehicle at a constant velocitythe laws of physics do not change as a result of its motion. If a person riding within the vehicle throws a ball straight up, that person will observe it rise vertically and fall vertically and not have to apply a force in the direction the vehicle is moving.

Another person, observing the moving vehicle pass by, would observe the ball follow a curving parabolic path in the same direction as the motion of the vehicle.

It is the inertia of the ball associated with its constant velocity in the direction of the vehicle's motion that ensures the ball continues to move forward even as it is thrown up and falls back down.

From the perspective of the person in the car, the vehicle and everything inside of it is at rest: It is the outside world that is moving with a constant speed in the opposite direction of the vehicle. Since there is no experiment that can distinguish whether it is the vehicle that is at rest or the outside world that is at rest, the two situations are considered to be physically indistinguishable.

Inertia therefore applies equally well to constant velocity motion as it does to rest. Though Sir Isaac Newton 's most famous equation is F.The Impact of Different Surfaces on Speed and Distance of a Car Traveling Down an Incline PAGES 1.

WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: friction force, car accidents, surface friction. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Jump to Index. Ferrari Spider (Spyder) You've got to drive this car! The Ferrari Spider elicits waves, honks, stares, and constant calls from nearby motorists and pedestrians alike.

In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to schwenkreis.com can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull.

A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. Here is a history of older questions and answers processed by "Ask the Physicist!". If you like my answer, please consider making a donation to help support this service.

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