The medieval weapons during the year 1232

It was a long and dark time of medieval war, conquest, plague, destruction which eventually led to the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.

The medieval weapons during the year 1232

The protagonists of the Hundred Years War are among the most colorful in European history: In battle after battle, French knights were mowed down by English longbowmen who fired arrows capable of piercing armor.

Castles proved worthless because cannons could take down their walls. The entire feudal system broke down as people developed loyalties to their countries rather than their local lords. I thought that I would highlight the military tactics and changes in weapons that occurred during the course of this war.

The longbow may have been invented by the Celts in Wales around C. There is also evidence that the longbow evolved from the Vikings. The wood would be preferably yew, which was hardened and cured for 4 years for best results.

The curing helped protect it from the elements, which later proved to be a greater asset than thought before. The curing process was used on regular bows but perfected by the longbow. The longbow had a draw weight the force needed to pull back to ear of pounds. The bow could shoot over half a mile with enough force to knock a knight off his horse.

The arrows shot commonly from the longbow were called bodkin arrows and were roughly 3 ft long with a tip designed for breaking through chain mail but with the force of the longbow behind it, it was capable of penetrating plate mail of all but the best quality.

One story states that an arrow shot from a longbow pierced an oak door 4 inches thick.

The medieval weapons during the year 1232

The crossbow was weaker and slower than the longbow, with only shots a minute while an experienced longbowman could loose 20 shots per minute. In effect, the longbow was a medieval machine gun. The longbow was also stronger than a regular bow, due to its length, and the cured yew it was made of.

The earliest longbow known from England, found at Ashcott Heath, Somerset, is dated to BC, but no longbows survive from the period when the longbow was dominant — ADprobably because bows became weaker, broke and were replaced, rather than being handed down through generations.

More than bows survive from the Renaissance period, however. Taxus baccata or Common Yew The trade of yew wood to England for longbows was such that it depleted the stocks of yew over a huge area.

The first documented import of yew bowstaves to England was in In there was a serious shortage, and Henry IV of England ordered his royal bowyer to enter private land and cut yew and other woods.

In compulsory practice was renewed, and hazel, ash, and laburnum were specifically allowed for practice bows. Supplies still proved insufficient, until by the Statute of Westminster inevery ship coming to an English port had to bring four bowstaves for every ton.

Richard III of England increased this to ten for every ton. This stimulated a vast network of extraction and supply, which formed part of royal monopolies in southern Germany and Austria. Inthe price of bowstaves rose from two to eight pounds per hundred, and in the Venetians obtained sixteen pounds per hundred.

From the earliest times, gunpowder has been composed of a nitrate salt, sulfur, and carbonaceous matter. The Nitrate component is the oxidizing agent, Sulfur is a low melting reducing agent and serves to aid in the transfer of heat through the gunpowder mass, and Carbon is a reducing component producing hot, high pressure gas.

The utility of gunpowder lies in its ability to accelerate a projectile by the explosive expansion of gas. Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate, promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.

The current standard composition for the black powders that are manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as Saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpeter and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations.

By the 9th century Taoist monks or alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality had serendipitously stumbled upon gunpowder.

The medieval weapons during the year 1232

The Chinese wasted little time in applying gunpowder to the development of weapons, and in the centuries that followed, they produced a variety of gunpowder weapons, including flamethrowers, rockets, bombs, and land mines, before inventing guns as a projectile weapon.

Fire Lance of the Sung Dynasty Hunting was the greatest example, and it was not only a leisure pursuit but had the practical rewards of improving horsemanship and dexterity with weapons, as well as livening up the castle dinner menu, too.

The Chinese wasted little time in applying gunpowder to the development of weapons, and in the centuries that followed, they produced a variety of gunpowder weapons, including flamethrowers, rockets, bombs, and land mines, before inventing guns as a projectile weapon.

It became one of the paramount weapons used in a number of victories during the Hundred Years’ War, particularly at the Battles of Crécy () and Agincourt (). Although longbows have been found in England dating as far back as BC, the dominant period of .

During the Middle Ages, nevertheless, the most used weapons were bows, which were one of the most efficient range weapons. They were made of wood (larch, ash, elm, maple, birch ), horn (ox, buffalo, goat, antelope), cane (bamboo) or metal (copper, bronze, steel).

The first use of true rockets as weapons is reported as occurring in The Chinese and the Mongols were at war with each other, and the Chinese repelled the Mongol invaders with a barrage of "arrows of flying fire" during the battle of Kai-Keng.

Medieval Weapons Weapons are the tools of today and the death of tomorrow. At one time all weapons were tools.

Medieval Weapons

The year is Somewhere in northern Europe, a Saxon castle is under attack. In the fields for miles around, thousands of soldiers viciously fight. » Medieval Weapons» Medieval Battle Tactics» The Weapons Of War.

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