Developing these abilities is a lengthy and challenging process for many children, not only those with learning disabilities.
Zurinah Suradi Concept Mapping: Conference on Concept Mapping A. Conducting a systematic literature review is an essential research activity in ensuring a good piece of research. However, students who are new to this research activity may find the activity highly challenging.
This article presents the findings from a classroom research involving pre-service teachers on the use of concept mappings for conducting and creating a literature review. The findings indicate that students are overwhelmed by the vast amount of information that they encounter and often do not know how to identify and organize the information to be of use in their research.
However, by using concept maps, the creation of a literature review becomes less daunting and more bearable throughout.
Concept mappings are used for two purposes mainly that is, to summarize the information obtained from an individual source and to synthesise information obtained from the different sources.
Adequate knowledge will ensure that the research is well justified in all aspects of its planning and implementations. One sure way of achieving such a knowledge state is by conducting a systematic review of what has been done in the area of interest that is, to conduct a literature review.
So important is the literature review to the academic research endeavours that a section of a research article or a chapter of a thesis is allocated to the literature review documentation. Creating a literature review is no easy task for students, as it demands multiple skills. A literature review is a multi-stage process that involves scanning the information, making notes of what have been read, synthesizing and structuring the information, writing a critical review of the literature and building a bibliography Rowley, and Slack, Often, the literature review process becomes more demanding as the research gets more complex.
Concept mappings have been suggested as one of the tools that can help in making sense of information while conducting a literature review Carnot,Rowley and Slack, What is more important, representing information in concept maps will provide a tool for potentially seeing the interconnections between areas that were not previously apparent Novak, In this way thus, concept maps can be useful in creating coherence to the actual writing of the literature review.
The objectives of this article are to identify the major challenges faced by students in creating a literature review, to determine what concept maps are being used for in the process and to determine their perceptions of the usefulness of concept mappings in the creation of a literature review.
The MTVE programme is a pre-service teacher-training programme and thus, the students have no prior teaching experience. The average age of the students was 24 years old and 40 out of the 47 students were females.
The students were taking the research methods class taught by the first author which was offered in the first semester of this programme.
As part of this course, each student was required to write a literature review on a topic of his or her choice, related to the technical and vocational education and training TVET. A list of 11 topics pertaining to TVET and their sub-areas were given to students to assist them in determining a topic for their literature search.
For the summary tables, they were asked to use summary titles such as objectives, sample, instruments and findings to focus their summarization efforts. All students were instructed to use the concept-mapping tool CmapTools downloaded from the website of the Institute of Human and Machine Cognition to construct their concept maps.
Before the mid semester break, students submitted three items for their literature review assignment namely, a five-page literature review on a topic of their choice, a journal describing their learning experience and a description of the process and activities that they had undertaken to create their literature reviews.
They were encouraged to include flowcharts, tables and concept maps in the description of their literature review process. Students were also encouraged to share their thoughts in the journal on the difficulties that they faced as well as their perception of the usefulness of the three tools that they used.
To verify whether concept mappings had any influence on the content and organization of their literature reviews, the drawn concept maps were compared to the written literature reviews. The three items were analysed to achieve the objectives of the study mentioned earlier.
Their lack of experience in teaching and thus of the educational issues makes it extremely difficult for them to come up with a topic that could catch their interests. Students tend to spend a lot of time and an effort before a final topic is decided.
One student GB who begins his search on women in TVET focussing on sexual harassment at the workplace changes his search topics several times before he finally decides that he likes to work on virtual laboratories and technology in TVET.
Students typically read on three topics with five to ten articles on each before they can decide on the one that they feel comfortable with.Brainstorming on paper, verbally, and/or with an electronic tool is a popular way to begin generating ideas for writing.
Webspiration is a free collaborative online version of the popular Inspiration mind-mapping software (available in BC through ERAC). Wordle is a fun Web application to use for brainstorming or creating colourful word-clouds for graphics or title pages.
Creating a literature review is no easy task for students, as it demands multiple skills. A literature review is a multi-stage process that involves scanning the information, making notes of what have been read, synthesizing and structuring the information, writing a critical review of the literature and building a bibliography (Rowley, and.
2 Scaffolding Reading and Writing Rose, Gray and Cowey indigenous students are consistent with the findings of the recent National Literacy Assessments (ACER . Basically, it is the type of professional tools that fund managers would pay $_ _ _, _ _ _ for in the s, available free H ow to start a new job (1/7/) A lot of people I .
Discussion The Tools of the Mind (Tools) curriculum was constructed on a foundation of Vygotsky’s and Luria’s theoretical work and practical studies of how children learn and how “tools” can be used to help children and teachers scaffold learning in the classroom.
Scaffolded Writing is a primary technique for teaching writing in Tools classrooms. It was developed specifically for Tools of the Mind and is recognized as a sanctioned strategy .